Tuberculosis (TB) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM) association poses the re-emerging problem nowadays and challenge on the way towards a tuberculosis-free world. There are some peculiarities in the immune function of DM patients, which make them more susceptible to infections, including TB. This results in a higher prevalence of TB among DM patients (OR=1.15 according to the last meta-analysis). Clinical manifestations of DM/TB often differ from the classical course of the disease — these patients are more frequently symptomatic, more inclined to cavitary disease and, according to some data, to lower lobe involvement. Data on multi-drug resistance prevalence among DM/TB patients are controversial and need further research, especially in terms of primary resistance. Higher frequency of adverse reactions, slower sputum conversion and foci regression make treatment in this population more difficult and worsen outcomes. Potential measures to lower the burden of co-morbidity are: new treatment regimens, bi-directional screening, proper DM managing and controlling, testing for latent tuberculosis infection and its treatment, and new vaccines development. Feasibility and efficacy of these measures are to be investigated in the context of settings with different DM and TB prevalence and available resources.
Tuberculosis and Diabetes Mellitus Co-morbidity